Friday, July 28, 2006

What To Write In A Christening Card As Godmother

neutron radiation hazards

This is something I should have written before, but better late than never.

Neutrons are ionizing particles, but usually associated with a gamma ray, which can ionize indirectly.

gamma rays have great penetrating ability. Taspasan entire human body, large amount of materials and air travel hundreds of meters without problems (remember that depending on the source, which varies its speed.) Stands with a block of lead, concrete or uranium.

In Canvi, neutrons, although not ionizing, are still very dangerous.
They have greater penetrating power than gamma rays, and a bloc of more than 2 cm thick massive lead they may fall short.
The route followed is very brittle (unlike gamma rays, with a rectilinear path) as are repeatedly hitting other atoms and are changing the route.

Once you have lost all their speed, activate the atom against which penetre.Esto makes a small source of neutrons not kill anyone, but a very intense source of neutrons kills very quickly.

can be used to protect materials that absorb neutrons, such as boron or cadmium or uranium, which makes them bounce. If a source
locked in a box of solid uranium, the neutrons will not come out, but the bad things that will trigger the air inside ... or turned back on nuetrones source or making it more intense or simply ineffective.

So you know, do not play much neutron sources ... Or separate Americium Beryllium if not !!!;-)

Saturday Night Live Fart Skit Will Ferrell

Acquire radioisotopes (II). National institutes in USA.

As I said, Spectrum Techniques is the best and sell it to everyone.
addition, all the U.S. stores that sell radioisotopes are distributors techinique Spectrum.

Of course, these radioisotopes are produced in nuclear reactors by neutron activation, so you might not find the radioisotope that we seek.

radioisotope can be created not only by bombing neutron, but also by proton bombardment using large particle acceledaros.

This produces new radioisotopes, but have the problem of being expensive and in short supply.

An example is the production and distribution of isotopes of Los Alamos National Laboratory, in those with a particle accelerator of 100 MeV.

These radioisotopes tend to be somewhat pricey, and especially for medical use and research, but if you pass the maximum amount permitted USA you will have no problems.

Here are the isotope selling. Think they sell in compounds (usually) and measured in uCi or mCi.

I hope that here you meet a radioisotope that interests you.

Then we also have the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which sells a large amount of both stable and unstable isotopes bombarded with neutrons.

Here is the página.Y certainly not be led by California, Berkelium, Plutonium, etc. For these very heavy license is required, whether the amount is. Remember that all alpha emitters USA are restricted, except for Po-210 (up 0.1 uCi).

Before I even sold-3 (stable), which the government has ceased production lest someone make an H-bomb

And finally, we have the Brookhaven National Laboratory, which produces a few very rare isotopes for medical, industrial and research.

Here is the page. The problem is that aside from the price (a little more expensive than the other two depending on things), there are only a few in stock. For others it may take more than two months to receive it.

Of course, if you ask too little (we're going to do if we have no license) you have to wait for someone else to ask too much of it, and that's when they come cheap synthesizers.

Well, here are the top 3 U.S. National Laboratories with isotope production program. Tip: If you can buy in Spectrum Techniques do it, if not the best thing is that they are in stock, because you are not going to bother to connect the accelerator

XD Salu2!

Wednesday, July 26, 2006

I0 Mm Phosphate Buffer

acquire radioisotopes
The sale of radioisotopes is a business worth a lot of money each year. Only in medicine, the government has to spend millions of euros to supply radioisotopes to hospitals, either radiotherapy, scans, X-ray portable devices, etc.

But not everyone is for medicine ... Many are for industries and for calibration of meters, for use in thickness gauges, etc.

Can we buy some of these? Yes, we can acquire radioactive sources for calibration without a license, but we must be clear about one thing: activity exemption. Is this it? We can purchase radioisotopes, but without a license, we can not buy that we want.

Each radioisotope having a unit of exemption (exempt quantity in English). To overcome it we must have a license.
Example: the unit exemption in Spain (this varies between countries) of Tl-204 is 10 kBq. To most need to get license.

And what are the units of waiver of each isotope in Spain?
few weeks ago I sent an e-mail asking this to the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC), which, kindly passed me. But do me if, no matter. Initially each vendor will inform you as you please buy the radioisotope.

now turn to suppliers:

English: is Nucliber Basically, a company that sells radio-isotopes for calibration. To meet you you have to be educated and to the point, asking these isotopes and precio.Os kindly attend. And what you realize that prices exceed € 1000 for a calibration disc with very little activity (well, as permitted by law), mandaréis them to take the ass.

far, I have not seen more English suppliers. European

: Nucliber sell Isotrak radioactive sources, which has a wide range, is very expensive and sold throughout Europe. Then there is

Canberra, which sells to Europe. The good thing is that it sells to 10 uCi of many products, and 25 uCi of Co-57.

But the supplier sells through an each country, and that of Spain is wrong because you are actually in Puerto Rico. Shit. And in Europe

little more, because who does not depend on Isotrak depends Canberra.

Although we Russian this website, it is best to sell californium, curium and even Berkelio.Son recent legal and licensing requirements. Then we have

RC Tritec is selling especially Switzerland and Beta emitters and light sentences made of Tritium and C-14.
independent seems very good, I've never bought there, or how they price, but surely that will be somewhat pricey for the armor that they put.

And then stop counting. American

: These are the best. There are many websites that sell, but after all, these radioisotopes are of the same company: Spectrum Techniques

sell a radioisotope usually in the form of discs and sealed (except for Po-210, the only alpha elmisor can sell.)

are a thing: The
sold without problems in Spain, since in spite of unit exemption exceed the English in many, nobody will say anything.
addition, as the CSN from me, I buy what I want.

can request the type of storage (disk, tube, etc) and you can choose the amount (Without exceeding the maximum). Here you have exemption units of each isotope in the USA.

Indeed, some radioisotopes allow them to 100 or even 1000 uCi Why? Just because they have a very short half life. If selling in less activity, no decay at all.

The trouble is that, for example in USA you can only with 0.1 uCi of Sr-90 and in Europe you can with 2 uCi. But hey, if you want any special id is asking the dealers that I have given, and look at the ratio activity / precio.Ahí is where almost always wins Spectrum Techniques.

For example, 0.1 uCi of Po-210: $ 69. The trouble is that in Europe I think that allows up to 2 uCI of Po-210.
10 uCi of Tl-204: only $ 88. In contrast, in Spain does not allow or 1 uCi.

is a matter of asking.

If someday I find an interesting, I'll let you know.


Sunday, July 23, 2006

What Type Of Engineer Designs Cars?

Reducing the critical mass of Pu-239

This text is purely educational.
Neither the author nor the site owners are responsible for their use.
are reminded readers that the material published here may not be true.

The critical mass of Pu-239 sphere-shaped reflector of neutrons (U-238) is 10 Kg.Esto would be like a golf ball, because the density of plutonium.

But is it possible to lower the critical mass of plutonium? Can you get a chain reaction with less Pu-239?

At least I think so, but even I'm sure.

first thing is to add a moderator to Pu-239. In this case Berilio.Si create a plutonium-beryllium alloy, beryllium reduce the speed of thermal neutrons, making possible the fission reaction cadena.Ademas, the Pu-239 decays to U-235 (fissile) via a particle alpha. This, on impact will create a new beryllium neutron and carbon, which also serves as moderator.

Well, we already have an alloy through which we have reduced the critical mass.

But if we add 0.01 mg of Cf-252 or Cm-248, and 1 mg of Po-210, more easily reach critical mass, but our fuel will have an average life I would put a maximum of 3 years.

But if instead of using pure Pu-239, we use U-238 is rich in Pu-239 (DU massively bombarded with neutrons, 60% of Enrichment with Pu-239), U-238 is converted to Pu-go 239.

When this chain reaction U-238 could clogging.

But before introducing this bombustible hope a nuclear bomb about 1.5 years, much of the U-238 will have become Pu-239.

Once we have done all this mass, it is best to immerse it in liquid hydrogen to form metal hydrides also make moderator.

Now we just have to this area EFG metal hydrides, more compact form possible depleted uranium to make neutron reflector. We already have our fuel, which I doubt serve for something (including an atomic bomb.)


-4 kg of Pu-239 or 6 kilos of pure U-238 Pu-239 enriched to 60%. Be
-500 grams.
-0.01 mg of Cf-252 or Cm-248
-Po-210 1mg

liquid-hydrogen-depleted uranium (just a little)

Melt 1-sphere-shaped or Pu-239 Uranium enriched with the beryllium, the Cf / Cm and Po-210 in an inert atmosphere at 1300 ° C. The dough should be as homogenous as possible so that all items can interact properly. Beryllium may be worth it in powder form.

2-Once chilled, let stand for two minutes submerged in liquid hydrogen, allowing it to penetrate well into the metal.

3-Surrounding the metal sphere by a layer minimum 1 mm thick pure U-238 (DU). Recommended 3 mm thick.
Remember that in many nuclear devices that uranium is already in the warhead, making it unnecessary to add the fuel itself.

4-Allow the fuel for at least 6 months, if what you have used is uranium enrichment.

Incase of using pure plutonium, the maximum life of the fuel is 5 years. Enriched Uranium is 8 years.

Now that you know, do not do, although it goes without saying that this does NOT work and you have no access to plutonium, like me.


Saturday, July 22, 2006

Crape Myrtlein Illinois

bombing Now what?

Once we have our source and our moderator, it is more likely to want to produce radioisotopes. Of course, we will not go bombing the first thing that caught without knowing that we isotopes.
So here I leave this guide for you to know that bomb.

Note: due to the limited power of the neutron source, we do not get to create big deal. For this reason and to verify the presence of radioisotopes, I recommend using a radiation detector.

First all, we must use is recommended to be a pure element. For example, a piece of lead, a bismuth ore, or anything else that you have purchased online.

Here we just take a piece of pure lead, easy to find (an old pipe, usually of lead, for example).

Well, now the first thing to know is: how many isotopes of lead exist in nature.

For that matter both of webelements , and once there we go to the command element that we have. In the case of lead is Pb . Now for the left column, where it says Nuclear Properties -> Naturally Occurring isotopes. So, since we know all the isotopes of lead exist in nature. Just as a curiosity, the Pb-204 that occurs in 1.4% is radioactive, but due to its long half-life, its radioactivity is negligible, also in part because lead blocks radiation.

We see that the Pb-208 is the most abundant (52.4%), does this mean? Means that all the atoms that bombard the 52.4% (approx.) shall Pb-208.
22.1% of Pb-207, 24.1% Pb-206 and 1.4% Pb-204, which is now radioactive and can be activated even neutron, no problems.

When we introduce a neutron in an atom, which is what we do, the atomic number goes up 1 (n = +1). And if you noticed, in the naturally occurring isotopes, three consecutive, Lead 206, 207 and 208, these three are stable.

If the Pb-206 bomb, this is Pb-207, which is stable.
If the Pb-207 bomb, you will be Pb-208, which will be stable.

words, only create new isotopes are unstable and Pb-205 Pb-209, neutron activation pro-204 Pb and Pb-208.Entre the two add up to 53.8% of abundance. Only 53.8% of the atoms are bombarded nuesvos unstable isotopes. A pity, but good.

The moment of truth: we put our piece of lead in the moderator, and leave it a while to get it started, except that you have a source of Cf-252, which in a minute everything will have become Lead radioactive as the single.

So in putting it off (at least 10 minutes), we think, is being created and Pb-205 Pb-209, how are their characteristics?

Well now go back to the left column, under natural isotopes, where it says Radioisotopes. Yes, I know it does not leave the Pb-209, is that they have forgotten to put it. You can find it here out where all the isotopes of all elements (known, of course).

Now we know that Pb-209 decays by beta decay - with a half life of about 3 h, and Lead-205 has a life of 1.53e7 years.

This means that as the Pb-205 activity has a very long, almost all radiation detected by our dosimeters come from the Pb-209.

OK, we've been 10 minutes, one hour, one year, or the time given us the desire bombing.

Now take it out and measure radiation. How to know if indeed almost all come from Pb-209? Quite simply, we make a table and pointing the CPM that gives us the lead. We'll see how in about 3 hours the radiation has dropped to half in 6 to one quarter (this is easier to see if we have a powerful neutron source, or as I said we have many sources of neutrons, the more the better).

There, that's all. If you want to bombard with neutrons other item, follow these steps to see to believe and whether or isotopes are created these by measuring the half-life.


First, I must say that I have chosen the Lead is not only common, but because with him there are many cases, several isotopes in different proportions, one of them radioactive, only served us at the end of an isotope to detect the radiation,. As you can

view, not form many different isotopes Lead serves well to protect against neutron radiation, but used many Boron and cadmium to absorb neutrons.

I remember that the more moderated useis better, yours is less thermal neutrons or epithermal.

And nothing, now write some activations curious as Lithium.


Wednesday, July 19, 2006

Lonsdale Boxing Shoes

neutron moderators

Now that we have our source of neutrons, we are willing to bomb anything that puts us ahead to create our radioisotopes. But not so fast.

Neutrons from our source (be it in whatever form) have a problem going at speed. These neutrons need to be stopped a bit to enter the nucleus and form the new radioisotope.

thermal neutrons are those with an acceleration that is below 0.025 eV, which would be a kinetic speed of 2.2 m / s. To achieve the fission of a fissile atom, the Neutron need this speed or less.
But really need that speed so low? No.

Each element to let you enter a neutron will need this speed or another, so the neutron go to a speed of about 100-50 eV or less, enough for you to create your own radioisotopes, as many atoms "accept" the neutrons from these speeds. And if mejor.Pero are lower again, if what you want is to trigger a fission (provided that you have a fissile material) really will need a thermal neutron (0.025 eV or less).

How to reduce the speed of a neutron

For this we use a moderator. Let me explain:

A neutron is reducing its speed through impact. Every time that hits an atom, its speed is reduced. If the colliding atom has a mass similar to the neutron, this will greatly reduce its kinetic energy. In short, the moderator needs to be composed of a light element such as hydrogen, deuterium, helium, beryllium, carbon or metallic sodium.
Boron and lithium are, by their ability to absorb neutrons.

why we put a chair containing a large proportion of some of these elements, or whether these elements directly.

hydrogen and deuterium are gaseous, so we have to use a compound of them, including light water, heavy water or paraffin.

Helium is a gas and is not made, we are not worth it.

Beryllium ... Look at who we have put in our sources beryllium to produce neutrons. Beryllium That reduces some speed, but need more. If you have a rather large block of Beryl, you know to use.

Carbon: you can use a block of graphite. ... I find that sodium metal can be expensive. Will not know how to use amorphous sodium, I guess it will be similar and cheaper than cash, of course.

Do not worry about how many centimeters moderator to. With about 15 cm you will be fine, but the more the merrier.

But do not compliqueis life: heavy water is the best mderador but you need large quantities and is very expensive. It is best to use polyethylene melt at 110 ° C so that it made a block, or paraffin blocks borada.Esta sell in UnitedNuclear . It is widely used by students and is very cheap. On the page that I have left you will find a box full of it for 100 €, but why so? Here you can buy it for $ 2 blocks to the block (less than 2 €). They also sell Beryllium (above the borated paraffin), so make your purchase. They even have this PDF upon activation de la Plata, so that you are learning.

Well, I leave. Then I will tell you as knowing that you have created isotopes, according to what you were bombed, and as fell.

But think that we are not activating nothing more than a few atoms, the more sources tengais better.


Monday, July 17, 2006

Karndean Vs Amtico Vs

Neutron Source

I've mentioned numerous times neutron sources, so here I bring what I had promised.

First of all, what are the neutrons? Neutrons are particles that form the nucleus of atoms. They consist of an electron and a proton (quarks up-down-down). What to serve? To get the atomic nucleus together by the strong interaction .

Generally, small nuclei have the same number of neutrons and protons, and as the atomic mass increases, it requires a much larger number of neutrons and protons to maintain the cohesion atomic nucleus.

And what happens if we add one more neutron to an atom stable? Many will know that a core is unstable when there is a big difference between the number of neutrons and protons. If we add a neutron to an atom, this will become unstable, and as the neutron will have an abundance, as a rule decay emitting an electron, transforming the neutron into proton (beta decay -).
Thus, the atomic mass is conserved (N), but the atomic number will rise to 1 (Z = +1). Indeed, 've created a new item!

For example, if bombarded with neutrons to U-238:

U-238 + n -> U-239 (b-) -> Np-239 (b-) -> Pu-239

We have obtained Fissile plutonium! But let's leave this for later (and lapsed, where decaying, half-life). Now take what we want ...

Neutron sources

There are basically two neutron sources: 1-The

using the interaction of alpha partículoa on a light element or
2-Those with an isotope with a very high rate of SF .

Let's see first. There are elements that decay by emitting an alpha particle. These are heavy elements: radium, radon, uranium, polonium, americium, curium ...

Well, is that they emit an alpha particle usually very energetic, about 5-6 MeV.
These helium nuclei without electrons (which are alpha particles), are so strong they can coalesce with another nucleus. This core must be of a light element, since otherwise the electrostatic repulsion forces are so large that it will break.
And that's what happens in this merger? An example of the fusion alpha with a core of Beryllium:

to + Be -> C-12 + n

As we can see, the alpha particle fuses with beryllium to form carbon (fully stable isotope) and releasing a neutron .

Beryllium is not the only element with this property are also oxygen, silicon or aluminum, to name a few. But yes, beryllium is the most efficient: for every million alpha particles generated 30 neutrons (remember that this merger is not always, a matter of probabilities.

Now go to the second method. Turns out there are so heavy atom, to be broken, because fission itself randomly. This is called SF (spontaneous fission, which is English).

This occurs even in the U, Pu, in many ... But it is very unlikely to happen in sufficient quantities for these fissions produce a very high number of neutrons. However, the Curio-248 and californium-252 especially are SF very elecvado index. The californium-252 (Cf-252) has a rate of 3,092% FS! This makes one microgram (1 mg) of Cf-252 emits a stream of
17 billion neutrons per second! That is an outrage, and makes it widely used as neutron source. The curium-248 (Cm-248) has a rate of 8% SF! While yes, this is not used as the Cf-252. The Curio is often used more as a source of alpha particles.

Our own neutron source

If you want to have your own source of neutrons, it is best obteis by the first method. Get Cf-252 or Cm-248 is usually very difficult. We can try to get from Nucliber , since they are official distributors of Isotrak. If you offer it without a license, you will draw a paste that you shit. Or you can try from this website Russian. Should the cops stop you, me I have not said anything XD

So we started. First, find a source of alpha particles.
What can be?
-Am-241 of a smoke detector (recommended). Radio
-phosphorescent handles an old clock.
-Po-210, highly recommended, but if you may have. Uranium and Thorium-
not recommended because of its low emission of alpha particles due to the long half-life of the two.

Am-241 can be extracted from the detector smoke as recently started here.

If you have an old clock radio with handles (that glow in the dark because they are radioactive) so you can use. How to know if they have radio or is it normal fluorescent PINTRO? Very simple: hide for 24 hours or more the clock. If you still glowing in the dark after having removed (try it to remove low light) is that it Radio. If not shine bright but before (years ago), it could have corrupted the phosphorescent material is excited by the Radio. For this you will not be forced to use a Geiger counter or a piece of blank paper radiography. If time being exposed is black, is Radio.
Or more simple, because sometimes there are places where they sell a lot of paint clockwise Radio. If you have the opportunity.

Polonium-210 only what you can find in photography, in some brushes that are used to remove static electricity. Or you can buy 0.1 mCi of polonium-210 in Spectrum Techniques. Although it seems little is enough.

Well, once the source you need Beryl. You could also use aluminum (paper "silver" cooking) or Silicon (Silica Gel, used in some bags, etc., to prevent moisture, and come in paper bags). Buy

Beryllium in Smart-Elements , UnitedNuclear , Emovendo , ElementSales , or just looking for San Google. Do not need much.

warn: The Beryllium is very toxic, especially in powder form. Keep you off the dust and I evitaréis problems.

Then, just will have to couple the source with beryllium (the more contact area the better) and you'll have your source of neutrons! Calculating

neutrons generated ...

For this you have to know your source alpha activity.

For example if you use 0.1 mCi of Po-210, how is it calculated? If 1 mCi are 1 / 1000000 Ci, and Ci (Curie) are 3.7e10 decays / sec, and only Po-210 decays by alpha particles, then the Po-210 emits 3.7e10 / 10000000 (we added a 0 over to be 0.1 mCi) = 3700 alpha particles per second. Beryllium 30 neutrons emitted per million alpha particles. Then
1000000 / 3700 = ~ 270 sec. to reach a million. We know then that in 270 sec 30 neutrons emitted, how many in a minute? A simple rule of thumb that gives us 6 to 7 neutrons / min! Not much, but for a start. We recommend using Americium, and all that podais (the more you find broken smoke detectors, the better).

"Now I can start?

yet, first you need a moderator of neutrons. I'll explain this in the next chapter.


Friday, July 14, 2006

Uranium in quotidian objects

Uranium can be found in some quotidian objects such as marbles or Fiestaware Uranium.

Uranium Marbles

is a glassy material. When the glass is func, is added to Uranus and turns green. Its special feature is that glows under ultraviolet light (UVA, which is long-wave ultraviolet), like a counterfeit detector (widely used in banks, bars, etc), but unfortunately it glows in the dark. Now there is no plant opens, but there have been many drinks and other ornamental objects with this material.
If you want to get (very cheap), it is better in U.S. EBAY where tropocientos looking to sell Uranium marble. "
Of course, very little radioactive (up to contain 3% of uranium)

Uranium glistening marble
UVA light (Phosphorescent)

Fiestaware Fiestaware are
The ceramic dishes that were available in various colors, made by a company called The Homer Laughlin China Co.
The funny thing is that those who are placed red, containing about 30% uranium oxide! They are highly radioactive , and also contain lead.
The worst thing is that if we take an acid food, this takes the uranium and lead, and then eat it. You see you that grace ...

Of course, those made red colo now no longer radioactive ... You can buy them from Ebay U.S. , are fairly easy to find.

red Fiestaware highly radioactive


Uranium depleted uranium metal with very low concentration of U-235, being over 99% U-238 (non-fissile isotope).

is very hard, 60% denser than lead, and with a melting point almost as high as the Tungsteno.Es used to store highly radioactive waste, because although it is radioactive, its high density and ability to bounce neutrons is very high. And you have to think that the activity of uranium is very low (25 386 Bq / g, not counting the radioactivity in their products dacaimiento).

is widely used in the military, especially by his property, is pyrophoric.
If a piece of the cut-Uranium, its dust can ignite causing a great heat.
If we use DU (Depleted Uranium) as a projectile, this can be traversing a tank with this property that makes you get more heat, increasing the capacity of perforación.También has some civilian uses.

I can buy (5 grams) in United Nuclear , or I think I can buy in more quantity in Alfa Aesar. Through this you can obtain plutonium-239 using a neutron source, which as I always say I will show later that there is.


Wednesday, July 12, 2006

How Long Do Erythromycin Take To Work

The radioactivity of

Bismuth Bismuth, element of atomic number (Z) 83, is a heavy metal with some very special characteristics.

has a low melting point above 500 ° C, to solidify expands by 3%, the layer oxide that sometimes covers it has many colors, is not toxic, it is very hard and is considered stable. But it is not.
Bismuth Sample natural, colorful and their oxides

Bismuth-210 is the only isotope that occurs naturally and is considered stable but it actually has a half life of 2x10 ^ 19 años.Esto is more than the life of our unioverso. Deca
by expulsion of an alpha particle to Tl-205, which is stable.
was discovered to be radioactive recently, but anyway its radioactivity is very low. So sorry, but no neutron source or anything.

If you have a bit of mineral, and calentadlo Cojedes a bit and you will obtain pure metal, silver metallic color.

I can buy in many places, such as pages of minerals or Ebay, or if you want to buy high purity and as a collector, what you can do in SmartElements in Emovendo or chemical section UnitedNuclear . Indeed, this latest web talk in more detail in a few days as they sell uranium, etc.

If you want in large quantities, what better place to Alfa Aesar, specializing in all metal type, I think even DU (Depleted Uranium in English), and I will tell you this later.

Well, this is more of bismuth as a curiosity, but it is true that if you get bombarded with neutrons the interesting Po-210, which I'll talk another day (hell, if I'm leaving things for later ...).


Letter Of Encouragement For Confirmation

Get Am-241 smoke detectors

Americium is a transuranic element (atomic number better than that of uranium) and is created by man in nuclear reactors by activation neutron. Formed after the decay of Pu-241, fissile isotopes of plutonium but with less importance in the Pu-239). Am-241 has a half life of 432.2 years and decays by alpha particle (helium nucleus without electrons) to Np-237, turn radioactive and decays several times up to Bi-209 (supposedly stable then explain why).

Americium is an element which also gives a moderate spontaneous fission, that is when the atom is broken into several pieces due to their large mass. Can be used as fissile material, with a critical mass of 23 kilos.

Thanks to their emission of high energy alpha particles, can also be used as neutron emitter, another day will explain who they are and how to make some.

But at the moment of truth, the americium is used in smoke detectors. Yes, you hear. The stream of alpha particles (each with a power ionizing +2) ionizes the air, allowing for the electrical current flow. If smoke enters, this current disappears and the alarm sounds. This is how the ionization chamber smoke detector.

Americium is easy to get that (although I want to put more and more fucked up). To do this, go away at any electronics store and buy a smoke detector with ionization chamber, the most common Cheap and effective, and are those with the americium. I care not mess a photoelectric detector (although difficult), which are very expensive and have no Am-241. The detector will cost from 6 to 12 €.

As there are many models, open it is very different depending on which you purchased, but all are something like
As you can see, we see perfectly the ionization chamber, where the americium. What is next, white, is the alarm.

To open the ionization chamber, id carefully. Sometimes you will be playing desoldering ...

Once you have the Am-241 in our hands, it will a plate like this:
This board can contain 10 uCi (microcurie) at 0.5 uCi. Generally, when more will be older.

Well, we already have our Am-241. Many people use it as emitting neutrons, which as I said the other day and explain them.

And now, a few things to consider:
1 - Am-241 is usually, but not be unusual if Radio.
2-THE Americium emits low energy gamma rays and neutrons by SF (spontaneous fission, as I said before, and the interaction of alpha particles with oxygen. Needless Can store in a lead container, but at least regard him about daily life while you do.
3-Americium is slowly oxidized in air to form AmO2. This is a solid black.
4-A times in the Am-241 plates from QSA (especially in Europe), we see directly the americium, proque this is coated with a thin layer of 2 micrometers of palladium. It is so thin that passes the alpha particles. Americium provides

2000 CPM if you have a Geiger counter with mica window to capture alpha. If it's Radio, you have to give a few more accounts, as I have understood. That's a good way to differentiate. Another is to put a small piece of lead, low thickness. If gamma rays pass through, is radio. Legality

is illegal to remove the radioactive source of a smoke detector.
From here I'm not encouraging anyone to do so.
I or web site administrators
we responsible for any use that is given to this information.


Tuesday, July 11, 2006

Denise Milani Tooples

Radioisotopes of non-radioactive elements in nature: C-14, K-40, Rb-87. Dating methods.

In nature there are unstable elements such as uranium or thorium known, neither isotope stable.

However, there are certain things in nature that, despite being stable, with a radioisotope which occurs naturally.


The best known is carbon-14. This isotope of carbon is unstable with a half life of 5715 years. When a neutron from space enters the atmosphere and collides with an atom of N-14 (most common stable isotope of nitrogen), it absorbs a neutron and releases a proton, thus forming the C-14. This is oxidized to C02, and that is when the atmosphere goes down. Plants absorb it, even we breathe, and we always have a minimum amount of C-14 in our body because it occurs constantly. Once a living being dies, he leaves to absorb C-14, and the amount of this in your body is going down because the carbon-14 decays (beta decay -, thatis, releases an electron to be re-N-14) . Thus, in the amount of C-14 present in the fossil or object to dating is to know how old she is. Curious, is not it? This is the technique most often used for dating, but not the only unstable radioisotope, there are others. Getting

C-14, WHERE?

This occurs naturally and is everywhere, but if you want to get C-14 isolated, high purity, podeís make this site .
As you can see it sold as CO2 and Barium Carbonate, apart from selling other beta-emitting isotopes, such as Pm-147 or Tl-204.
on the same site also sells lamps made perpetual C-14, which as in my previous post, called Carbolum . I think
This site is UK, maybe it legal to buy from Spain.
Later I shall tell you a lot of places sell radioisotopes.


This coexists with the radioisotope potassium-39 (the lifetime) and Potassium-41 (stable and occurs in 6% in nature). It has a half life of 1,277 x10 ^ 9 years (Yes, that's a lot), and decays by EC (Electronic capture). This is the same as the beta + decay where a proton absorbs an electron from the layer L or K to become a neutron, releasing a positron (not always), a neutrino and a gamma ray to adjust its mass.
of curiosity, I will say that a radioisotope that decays by electron capture can be stopped if it is fully ionized, ie if you start all the electrons can not decay and will remain stable until you find alguno.El K-40 to be in nature can find perfectly electrons, and then decays to argon-40, which is a noble gas that does not react with almost any element (As any noble gas). As

dating method is used extensively in the rocks and some fossils, by measuring the ratio of potassium-40 and argon-40.Al have a life longer than the C-14, is best method for fossil life very long, plus the Potassium-40 occurs in marine animals, unlike the C-14. Getting

K-40, WHERE?

As the K-40 occurs in nature, virtually all of the potassium compounds have some radioactivity. But of course, must take into account the concentration of potassium in the compuesto.Por example, if we Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) there is less potassium in a mole that this compound in a mole of potassium chloride (KCl), made where there are plenty of potassium.
And this compound, where I can get? For salt diet, or low in sodium.
In this salt, sodium chloride (NaCl) is replaced by potassium chloride (KCl), pudiendola people who do not tolerate ingested sodium, as people with hypertension problems. It is very easy to find in any supermarket.
If we take some of this salt in a bowl, we can capture with a Geiger counter up to 100 CPM (counts per minute). Put another tube that closely. Not much radioactivity, but the truth is that to realize the K-40 at 0.01% in nature, it shows enough.
So far I have not found anywhere to isolate what, if anything you can buy at any store potassium chemicals, is a very common.


The Rubidium is an alkaline plateado.Es color solid, but melts at a temperature of 39.31 ° C. Burns on contact with air and explodes spontaneously in contact with water. I here Brainiac a video where they mix with water alkaline elements.
Well, it appears that the rubidium-85 is a stable isotope and more is given (by 72.17%), but the Rubidium-87 occurs in ... a 27.83%!

As you can see, the Rubidium always come packaged in a blister vacuum or argon, unless you please burn. And if you have a blister is cesium or rubidium and you want to see how it melts in your hand, keep cuidado.Porque if the blister is broken when fire metal, you will eat the flesh and bone. If a blister with plenty, not be forced to amputate. no kidding.

And to get ...
This is much Rubidium-87, and of course people will not kill to separate the two isotopes, and that if you buy something of Rubidium in places like Smart-Elements (legal, reliable, with inexpensive but with Cesium Rubidium as a bit expensive) or if you look Rubidium by Ebay U.S. or if You give here , will have 20% of Rb-87! not that exciting?

Having a very long half-life of 4.75x10 ^ 10 years, used to date objects that are rich in Rubidium, as no metal is a very común.Decae to strontium-87 by Beta -.

If you are interested you can buy this item also its isotope Rb-83 (this does not occur naturally) in
Los Alamos, which is produced by proton bombardment. This has a half-life of 86.2 days, making it highly radioactive. Decays by EC.
I do not know if I will buy even a small amount. I'll ask them.

Ale, I go, I have to stop sailing and my brother and I vult to roll too.


Monday, July 10, 2006

Birthday Cake Ideas, Dirt Bike

Lights Tritium perpetual How do they work? Are they safe? What law?

Many have heard of tritium lights. Generally you will have seen as pendants, known in English as glowrings, it seems some of that crap they give you to leave the club.

Tritium (H-3) is an isotope of hydrogen which has one proton and two neutrons.
To get rid of a neutron, it releases an electron and an anti-neutrino. This electron is called electron nuclear simply because it leaves the nucleus itself, since neutrons are composed of an electron and a proton, which neutralizes the electrical charge.

Tritium becomes He-3, and the electron (with a speed of 18.59 keV) is directed to match where tritium is contained in, and activates, leaving the nice effect that you see above. Thus, continuously, for about 20 years.

pendant color color depends only match. A phosphor is a chemical compound which gives the fluorescence or phosphorescence, as many items you have out there that glow in the dark. These matches are usually zinc sulphate (ZnS). Here you have a great website about various types of matches made by the PFDC. You can even get to see directly with espintaroscopio radiation, which I will speak later. It is also based centelleo.Pero counters continue with the subject.

Tritium was not the only material that has been used to make light sentences.
The radio was very used to the hands of a clock, but due to its high radioactivity and its decay products was recalled. Today

these perpetual lamps are often made or tritium or Promethium-147, a highly radioactive beta emitter because of its short life (2.6 years). But wait, no mistake.
If you have a clock where the hands will glow in the dark, does not mean you have to be radioactive. It can be simple phosphorescent paint.

The beta radiation at first did not have great penetrating power, so it is not a perpetual problem with these lights can get so close to our hearts or our pet (depends where you want it to). The problem is given by the Bremsstrahlung effect . And I ask: what the hell that means? When a high-speed electrons (beta radiation) passes near a nucleus, this runs counter to have their load tries to attract, thus slowing the electron.
And where will the energy for it to removed the electron? That energy comes out as X-ray

The same happens in the Tritium lights: When the electrons hit the glass, do not cross it, but X-rays generated low energia.Con a Geiger counter we can detect up to 250 CPM (counts per minute) , which is enough. So you know, if you have one of those key chains or pendants, you bear not very close, which is to print a photographic plate in 5 seconds, but not good.

On the issue of legality ... I have no idea how legislation is in force in Spain, but I have written to the CSN an e-mail to see what I say (surely pass me). In USA The item is screwed because there is basically Tritium military use (that weird, right?), but that is not true in all countries.

If you are interested it is best to buy from Ebay UK . Since the UK is illegal Sport, but that gives us most. You can also buy from the store Lumitec Taiwan Ebay. There are many other places, but Spain seems to me nothing.

And finally, I have to mention that with tritium are also a few markers that are used in the army and serve to highlight certain areas where they are placed in the night. I've been surprised a few markers of carbon-14 (as well as the tritium decays by beta), called Carbolum, made by Tritec (site I believe is the United Kingdom).

apparently no license is required if you order one that has little activity, but a larger pied, it is necessary to leave (the software).

This page also sells Werb Some radioisotopes, but I will comment ma forward and sites where you can find, which are maximum allowed, etc.

Hell, if I've rolled writing. The next time I'll be more careful.